Current Event Summaries by Will R.

7 Responses to Current Event Summaries by Will R.

  1. Will Rauter says:

    Titel: High-fructose and high-fat diet damages liver mitochondria
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191001132712.htm
    Author(s): Joslin Diabetes Center
    Website: Science Daily
    Date: October 1, 2019

    Article Summary:
    There has been a recent research taking place at Joslin Diabetes Center. Researchers have found high levels of fructose in a diet can restrain the liver’s ability to correctly metabolize fat. The effect only happing with fructose of course. Fructose makes the liver store fat. It like you are adding more fat to the diet. Opposed to adding more glucose to the diet, which helps the liver burn fat, and make a healthier metabolism. Now fructose in a diet is not good for you at all. It isn’t just bad becuase it has more calories, but it also makes it so your metabolism has a harder time burning fat and is hard on your liver. The researchers conducted an experiment with animals. They had 6 different types of food. Regular chow, chow with high fructose, chow with high glucose, a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet with high fructose, and a high-fat diet with high glucose. They concluded that combined with other types of chow they experimented on, that both high-fat and high-fat plus fructose diets damage mitochondria and make it easier for the liver to store fat rather than burn it. They also experimented with the levels of acylcarnitines in the liver’s cells. When the liver burns fats they make Acylcarnitines. High levels of these are not good because it tells that there is a lot of fat in the liver being burned. High-fat plus glucose diet had a lower amount than in the plain high-fat diet. This shows that fructose in a diet is bad and glucose is good.

    Personal Reaction:
    I thought this article was very interesting. Especially, because we have talked about fructose and glucose in class, so I thought it was interesting to see it pop up again in this article. It was interesting to me how bad fructose is for you. I was shocked to find out the differences between the two. Before this, I didn’t know a whole lot about how they affected your health, but now I am glad I know the effects of the two. I hope I can learn more about this topic and further my understandings of it.

  2. Will Rauter says:

    Title: “Genome-edited bull passes on hornless trait to calves”
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191007113323.htm
    Author(s):
    Website: Science News
    Date: October 7, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Researchers at the University of California, Davis, have studied six dairy bull’s calves and genome-edited them to restrict it from growing horns. This technology has been introduced as another option other than dehorning, to make sure to protect humans and calves from damages and injuries from the horns. Scientists at UC Davis have recently announced their findings of the experiment in the journal Nature Biotechnology. The scientist announced that zero of the calves of bull’s developed horns. This was what was supposed to happen. They also found blood work and physical exams of the offspring were all good. Scientists also put together the genomes of the calves and their parents and investigated these genomic sequences. They did this to see if there were any unexpected changes. They needed to make sure the process was safe so the FDA investigated. The FDA scientists did on the experiment showed a piece of bacterial DNA. This DNA was the one that helped pass the hornless trait to the calves. In fact, corresponding author Alison Van Eenennaam said, “Our study found that two calves inherited the naturally-occurring hornless allele and four calves additionally inherited a fragment of bacterial DNA, known as a plasmid,”. Mixtures of plasmids are the DNA that removes the horns from the calve. For this experiment, the scientist used two offspring of the genome-edited hornless calves that received only the naturally occurring allele. Most dairy cows grow horns. Usually, these horns are removed at a young age. They take the horns off because if not they could hurt other calves or workers. Taking off the horns is a painful experience for the calves. But, Van Eenennaam said, “genome-editing offers a pain-free genetic alternative to removing horns by introducing a naturally occurring genetic variant, or allele.”

    Personal Reaction:
    I thought this article was interesting. I think what the scientist at UC Davis came up with was amazing. It is a painless way for the calves to get their horns off. It also makes sure no one gets hurt while working with the claves. Overall it helps the safety off he calves and workers. I had never heard of this, but I am surprised by all the information I learned from it.

  3. Will Rauter says:

    The Author of the last one was the University of California – Davis

  4. Will Rauter says:

    Title: Bacteria trapped — and terminated — by graphene filter
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191007123242.htm
    Author(s): Mike Williams
    Website: Science News
    Date: October 7, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Scientists at Rice University have modified their laser-induced graphene (LIG) in the last year. The scientists have turned it into a self-sterilizing filter that takes pathogens out of the air and kill them using tiny beats of electricity. The filter was developed by a chemist named James Tour at the Rice lab. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say that 1 in 31 patients have a chance of getting a possibly antibiotic-resistant disease through hospitalization. The LIG captures bacteria, fungi, and different types of biological contaminants that are passed on by droplets and particulate matter. After this, the filter blocks the microbes and other contaminants from increasing by regularly heating up to 350 degrees Celsius (662 degrees Fahrenheit). At this temperature, it can destroy pathogens and the deadly diseases they carry. The filter doesn’t need a lot of power. The lab tested LIG filters with a regular vacuum filtration method. This just means it pulls air through at a rate of 10 liters per minute for 90 hours. After this, they found that the heating successfully sanitized the filters of all pathogens and diseases they carried. Producing used filters for another 130 hours showed no following bacterial growth on the heated units, unlike control LIG filters that had not been heated. This means that the LIG worked. “They may decrease the frequency with which LIG filters would need to be replaced with traditional filters,” says James Tour. He believes that this technology will be helpful in the future and will save many lives. “It’s been predicted that by the year 2050, 10 million people per year will die of drug-resistant bacteria,” he says. This could help millions of people.

    Self Reflection:
    I have never even heard of LIG, and I think that is a shame. This is because the new technology could help save millions of lives and is a brilliant and safe invention. It helps disinfect and cure patients that might have been affected by antibiotic-resistant diseases. I hope to learn about this more because it is very interesting.

  5. Will Rauter says:

    Article Summary:
    A new study from the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, written by Elsevier, shows urban and home gardens, as well as nutrition education, could help the ongoing problem. The University of California at San Francisco has researchers that are partnered with Valley Verde. This is a community urban garden organization that is in Santa Clara County, California. The goal for it is to understand people’s studies of the health benefits as well as the acceptability of urban home gardening programs. The popularity of these kinds of clubs is growing and for a good reason. If we can do this, it will help with the start of bigger tests and help us see how powerful they are. Some programs help low-income and immigrant populations. They providing them with the information, experiences, and tools required to grow their own organic vegetable gardens. The information that is taught to the people includes biology. The volunteers inform them about the life of a plant. This includes how they use photosynthesis to make food and energy for themselves and how they taking in carbon dioxide and give oxygen out. This shows how plans help us breathe. After they learn about the biology side of the plants, they start growing the plants. After time they start producing plants and eat them. This helps out the problem of wasting food. Overall it helps the community and is informing about biology.
    Personal Reaction:
    I thought this was an interesting topic. I have known about the biological side of the story, but never about the gardens and the people that help grow gardens. I thought it was very interesting and want to learn more about the topic.

  6. Will Rauter says:

    Title: “Voltage-gated calcium channels ‘read’ electric patterns in embryos to create cartilage and bone”
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191007153443.htm
    Author(s): Tufts University
    Website: Science Daily
    Date: October 7, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Scientists at Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University and Harvard Medical School have shown that for limb formation the electrical patterns produced inside an embryo begin with little changes in water that end in the growth of cartilage and bone. This study was published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). This helps us explain a huge question in bio, which is: “How do immature cells in the developing embryo differentiate and organize into a body?”. Previous studies have shown unusual electrical patterns in growing embryos. Some even act as a design for the tissues and organs. After this, those tissues an organs take shape when the embryo gets older. Then once the embryo has matured, the electrical patterns that are created by cells that put charged ions into and out of the cell membrane. This makes a voltage potential over the membrane wall. “After this, they allow the cells to support and fit into a highly-patterned body,” said Michael Levin, Vannevar Bush Professor of Biology in the School of Arts & Sciences and director of the Allen Discovery Center at Tufts. ” Finally, this means that the electric patterns in the embryos will create cartilage and bone.
    Personal Reactions:
    I thought this article was very informative. This is because of the facts that are used. I thought it was interesting how the slightest bit of water can grow into cartilage and bone in an embryo. Overall, it was an interesting topic and I want to learn more about it.

  7. Will Rauter says:

    All the articles I wrote about were from Science Daily and not Science News for the website.

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