Current Event Summaries by Walter W.

5 Responses to Current Event Summaries by Walter W.

  1. Walter Waxman says:

    Title: New fungus-derived antibiotic: Relief in sight for immunocompromised people
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190925113017.htm
    Author: Science Daily
    Website: Science Daily
    Date: September 25 2019
    People with an immunodeficiency condition have immune systems that are unable to fight against diseases. This means that immunodeficient people are much more likely to catch disease than most people. People get an immunodeficient condition because they have had diseases such as HIV chemotherapy and organ transplant. With the rise of fungal infections that affect a treatment is very needed. currently treatment need compounds with antifungal properties that are very limited. The leading compound used today is called eushearilide which was discovered in 2006. It is used for its various anti yeast and antifungal properties that are used to fight against fungi that are common in human infections. A research team led by Isamu shiina from Tokyo University to derive compounds from eushearilide but with more beneficial effects. They used previous research from a study and gathered information to test the new effects fungi and bacteria had on a lead compound 23-dimethylacetanilide which they called usharelide. They successfully derived usharelide from eushearilide by performing reaction of molecules connected to the 23-dimethylacetanilide. When they compared the new usharelide to the original eushearilide, they saw that the new compound had new antibiotic properties. Those antibiotic properties also showed antibacterial properties towards various other types of fungus. There are even more experiments that are showing goods signs that the antibacterial properties are taking care of fungi like MRSA which is known for it potentially fatal infections. All of these findings show that usharelide is a very promising treatment from immunodeficiency conditions and can be improved even more to provide treatment.

    Personal reaction: I am very happy to see that this treatment is making major advancements that will be able to further benefit treatment for people with immunodeficiency conditions. I am excited that these treatments shows promise that they will further advance. I also think that usharelide it the best possible treatment as of now for unique antibacterial properties.

  2. Walter Waxman says:

    Title: The Next agricultural revolution is here
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190919181133.htm
    Author: Science daily
    Website: Science Daily
    Date: September 19 2019
    Future food security is currently being threatened by climate change and population but scientists are trying to fix this problem by using current technology. Professor Zach Lippman and Yuval Eshed teamed up to look back at past agricultural revolutions to see what started them and how to create new plants that can benefit us. Some examples of these from the past are creating hybrid plants and fertilizers that let plants grow in certain environments. Before agricultural revolutions were started by something discovered by chance but now scientists think we can start one on are own. This was shown in the 1960’s with wheat farming were the wheat would grow to big and would be unusable. This led scientist to work with mutations that let the wheat be more reliable. This can also be seen in China with cotton farming. Before, Cotton farming took a long time and was only done in the south but now they made it much faster and is suitable in the northern climate. Mutations in crops were what started agricultural revolutions but these mutations could take very long periods to discover and was very hard. Now scientists are trying to speed up this process by finding new mutations instead of editing previous ones like done before. By introducing genetic variation to those two systems that define most revolutions, farmers to skip the work time periods of waiting. One example is chickpeas which are able to adapt to different conditions to create more biodiversity. Scientist are trying to continue what they did in the past by making plant be able to adapt to very different conditions than originally and by doing this they will be able to start future agricultural revolutions.
    Personal reaction: I am happy to see that scientists are able to start new revolutions and they are able to adapt plants to any environment. I find it very interesting that they can mutate them to do certain things that fit their needs.

  3. Walter Waxman says:

    Title: Climate change study finds that maple syrup season may come earlier
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190920145348.htm
    Author: Science Daily
    Publisher: Science Daily
    Date: September 20 2019
    The Maple syrup industry is a multimillion dollar global industry that has been on the rise over the past decade. Scientists have been studying maple sugar stand in Virginia and quebec to see how they are affected by the rise of global warming. Maple sugar production is affected by two factors being sugar content and sap flow which are affected by climate.the research team tested how the production was affected by the temperature averages by getting sap samples throughout the tapping season. By measuring the volume and weight of the sap while also taking temperature readings the research team was able to the variability of the Sap flow between trees. By connecting this with with previous sap data the research team was able to predict the optimal times for sap flow and production. They also predicted how the climate will affect the maple syrup production by looking at climate models. With all this data they found that the best time for maple production is a 45 day span that falls in March or later. By connecting this to their previous climate models they were able to determine that by the end of the century, maple production season will be a whole month earlier. They also found that Majority of the US will see decreased production while Quebec and other Canadian places will see medium to large increases. This important because The maple industry is worth lots of money. This Also mens Canada will become an even larger part of the maple industry than it already is while the Us will start to struggle.
    Personal Reaction: I am very surprised on how much of jurassic affect the climate has on the Maple industry and I can’t believe that it will be pushed up a whole month in only the next 80 years. I wonder how much the climate affects other plants and if they are affected as much as the maple trees.

  4. Walter Waxman says:

    Title: Antibiotic resistant genes prevalent in groundwater
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191004105627.htm
    Author: Science Daily
    Publisher: Science Daily
    Date: October 4 2019
    As climate change becomes more prevalent leading to more droughts people turn to water recycling so they will have enough water. However new contaminants like ARG’s (Antibiotic resistant genes) could potentially make drinking water unsafe. Adam Smith and a team of researchers went to test this out by comparing samples of water from various treatment facilities and aquifers. It was found that the ARG were very rarely present at the treatment facility but were noticeable in the groundwater samples. This is because indirect water treatment methods are more popular than direct methods because they are considered more reliable by the public. The difference between the two is that the indirect has an extra stage were it goes hack into the environment before going to the facility. Some Args are naturally occurring but most are because of overuse of antibiotics. What makes the treatment facility water lower in ARG’s is that they go through further advanced physical and chemical techniques. The reason why the ARG are hard to stop is because some facilities already have ARG’s in them so when new water is introduced it can get contaminated. The reason the scientists are very concerned is because it can progressively get worse and can become a super-bug. This can happen because it can expose other things in the environment so that they share the same properties. Water recycling is still the leading option in the world because of the cost and how easily it is to do compared to other methods but there is a big concern because of the ARG’s which could massively affect the World’s water supply.
    Personal Reaction: I am very concerned with how bad this problem can possibly get because this affects the water supply for the whole World. I also wonder what will happen if this situation does not improve. If this is not fixed, I think we will be able to switch to another method like distillation.

  5. Walter Waxman says:

    Title: New defensive mechanism against bacterial wound infections
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191004105635.htm
    Author: Science Daily
    Publisher: Science Daily
    Date: October 4 2019

    Wound can often be infected by bacteria and other pathogens leading to inflammation. Treatment is often easy and quick but due to new bacteria developing antibiotic resistance, this can be much harder for treatment. However, a team of researchers from Berlin have found a solution which is an endogenous mechanism that can get rid of infections without antibiotics. The research team investigates the skins host defense and how they help the immune system. The specifically looked at mast cells which are known for their min role in allergies but the scientists think that their role goes beyond and fights against pathogens. They tested this hypothesis by having two animal models with one having no mast cells. After five days the model with no mast cells had 20 times the amount of bacteria. The scientists found that this was because the mast cells released a messenger molecule interleukin 6. With this knowledge, the research team was able to find that if the interleukin 6 messenger molecule was applied to the wound prior to infection, there would be a better defense against the bacteria.The researchers were even able to replicate this with human tissue. With this foundation the scientist will be able to experiment and explore how the application of mast cells and the interleukin 6 messenger molecule can help treat against wound infections.
    Personal reaction: I think that this is a revolutionary step forward for how common skin wounds are and I think that with this foundation scientists will be able to find lots of new things. I am surprised that they were able to find such a seemingly simple solution for such a common problem and I think it will benefit lots of people.

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