Current Event Summaries by Easton Z.

5 Responses to Current Event Summaries by Easton Z.

  1. Easton Zimmer hour: 6
    The name of the article is How salamanders harness limb regeneration to buffer ourselves from climate change.
    The article was published on September 10, 2019
    The author is Clemson university
    Name of website: Science Daily

    Summary: The researchers from Clemson University’s College of Science are researching how do salamanders harness the unique trait of regenerating limbs from climate change. Because the salamanders need to be moist in order for them to regenerate limbs, but there is a risk that comes with that cause each day salamanders have the risk of drying out and dying. To test this Eric Riddell collected about 150 salamanders from the mountains near Highlands, North Carolina, and brought them back to Sears, then he left them for about a month and would see how the adopted to the environment. Then he then divided the animals into four groups that would be exposed to different climate conditions they might experience currently or in the future. He measured how quickly the salamanders dried out and how much oxygen they consumed by calculating the vapor pressure deficit (VPD). After the experiment, they found that as temperatures increased, the salamanders were able to break down and subsequently rebuild blood vessel networks in their skin. To conclude, this blood vessel development might help scientists understand a salamander’s unique ability to regenerate or regrow limbs, a model system for understanding regenerative medicine in humans.

    Personal reaction: I think that it is cool that scientists are studying things that someday might help humans to be able to regenerate limbs. It is interesting to me that the salamander has to stay moist in order to survive. I think that the ability to rebuild blood vessels is interesting because imagine if humans and animals could regrow their body parts after they lost them.

  2. Title: Salmonella causing bloodstream infections in central Africa resistant to nearly all drugs.
    Author: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
    Website Name: Science Daily
    Published: September 19, 2019

    Article Summary: The research is being done by the researchers from the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) in Antwerp, the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) in the DRC, the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the University of Cambridge and their collaborators. Their findings show that the disease called S. Typhimurium has evolved in sub-Saharan Africa in the past decades and is still evolving today. Most other salmonella related diseases are like food poisoning where you have a hurt stomach and not at all life-threatening, but in sub-Saharan Africa, Salmonella such as S. Typhimurium can cause infections in the blood, known as invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infection which is life threatening. And the treatment for the disease is almost unless. About 3.4 million people and result in 681,316 deaths globally and the numbers are rising because of this mutation. The people at the greatest risk are children 5 and younger. But one of the commonly available drugs in the DRC, with one sample showing reduced susceptibility to this final antibiotic. This is the only drug that we know of that can slow down this disease.

    Personal reaction: It is kindy of scary that diseases are evolving to be drug-resistant to the cures to them. It is also bad that there is only one known cure for the disease in the whole entire world. I hope that in the future the world can find more than one cured for this evolved diseases.

  3. Title: Powerful new synthetic vaccines to combat epidemics
    Author:University of Bristol
    Website Name: Science Daily
    Published: September 27, 2019

    Article summary: The article is about A new type of vaccine that can be stored at warmer temperatures, removing the need for refrigeration, has been developed for mosquito-borne virus Chikungunya in a major advance in vaccine technology. Infectious diseases continue to plague populations worldwide. And the human ability to counteract these diseases is getting worse because we rely so heavily on the vaccines. Then there are some diseases that we have not made a vaccine from like Ebola, Zika and many others. The problems of this intensify when you go to poorer countries. Researchers from the University of Bristol and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Grenoble, France is trying to help these less fortunate countries by making vaccines more affordable and easier to transport from place to place. the team developed a novel computational approach to create an accurate digital model of the synthetic vaccine. And The particles the scientists designed yielded exceptionally promising results in animal studies, soundly setting the stage for a future vaccine to combat Chikungunya disease.

    Personal reaction: I think that it is nice that countries are trying to help out the less fortunate countries with their struggles with diseases. Also it is interestrest that they are going to be able to transport vaccine in baggies that are room temperature and that will not go bad as easily.

  4. Title: Weak spot in pathogenic bacteria
    Author: Technical University of Munich (TUM)
    Website Name: Science Daily
    Published: October 5, 2019

    Article Summary: Almost 700,000 people in Europe suffer from infections every year through antibiotic-resistant pathogens and around 33,000 of them die from the infections. But despite this the danger of the diseases is increasing even though there are lots of corporations trying to stop it. There is a particularly promising point of attack for antibacterial therapies is the proteolytic enzyme ClpP and it plays an important role in bacterial metabolism. Also it controls the amount of degradation of defective proteins. But doing this method is very complicated. ClpP is also a decisive regulator in the production of an arsenal of bacterial toxins which are primarily responsible for the pathogenic effect of many pathogens. It is led by Prof. Stephan Sieber. He has been successful at slowing down the bartical also he has created a lot of antibiotics for many diseases. ClpX which stop the production of bacterial toxins and can therefore more or less disarm them. This is a key to the development of innovative antibiotics which target the degradation process of defective proteins in bacteria.

    Personal reaction: I think it is very important that people are coming up with antibiotics and cures for diseases. Because diseases cause a lot of deaths each year and sciences are trying to lower it. And diseases are one of the worst ways to die because when there is not a cure to a disease you have then you just suffer with the disease until you die.

  5. Title: Scientists find timekeepers of gut’s immune system
    Author:Washington University School of Medicine
    Website Name: Science Daily
    Published: October 4, 2019

    Article Summary: As people go through their daily and nightly routines, their digestive tracts follow a routine,digesting food and absorbing nutrients during waking hours, and replenishing worn-out cells during sleep.Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a type of immune cell that helps keep time in the gut. An example is type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). It is responsible for keeping the intestine operating in a normal and orderly fashion. They found that clock genes are highly active in such cells and that the cells production of immune molecules track with the activity of the clock genes. And if you remove this the animal will fail to create a subset of ILC3 cells and struggle to fight a bacterial infection in the gut. The ILC3 cells maintain equality in the gut by making a barrier between the trillions of bacteria that normally live inside the gut and the cells that make up the intestine itself. By studying the ILC3 cells taken from mouse intestines at six-hour intervals,they found that the activity of clock genes varied in a predictable pattern over the course of a day. The researchers are continuing to study the role of circadian rhythms on the digestive tract.

    Personal reaction: I think that it is weird that the work shift and jet lag do not only attack the sleep cycle, but also affect the feeding and digestive cycles as well. It is bad because it links with a risk of obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, and other conditions. It is cool that the researches have found ways to contain these conditions.

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