Current Event Summaries by Charlotte H.

5 Responses to Current Event Summaries by Charlotte H.

  1. Charlotte Holland says:

    Climate change study finds that maple syrup season may come earlier

    URL- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190920145348.htm

    Author- Dartmouth college

    Website- Science Daily

    Posting Date- September 20, 2019

    Once winter evenings sink below freezing and the days warm up above freezing sap begins to flow into maples of sugar marking the beginning of the syrup season. Maple syrup production is affected by two climate-sensitive variables: sugar content, determined by the carbohydrate shops of the prior year and sap flow, depending on the freeze/thaw cycle. The frozen sap starts moving through the tree as a sugar maple tree thaws. Researchers obtained samples from 15 to 25 mature sugar maple trees every day of the tapping season across the study areas. The team used climate models based on the RCP 8.5 carbon emission scenario, which follows present emission trends, to calculate predictions on how climate change will impact maple syrup production. The research discovered that most seasons of sap collection were 45 days or less and that three-quarters of the sites tended to drop in the center of the sugar maple tapping season in March or later.”As the climate gets hotter, the sugar maple tapping season will decrease and approach a December deadline. Maple syrup manufacturers may want to consider adapting their techniques and collection logistics in advance so that they are prepared for how climate change will impact manufacturing,” said co-author David Lutz, an environmental research assistant professor at Dartmouth. In 2017, the Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers revealed that Canada is home to 80 percent of the world’s maple syrup manufacturing, 72 percent of which is manufactured in Quebec, and 20 percent of which is manufactured in the U.S. Researchers are calling for extra research on climate change and maple syrup manufacturing that can assist maple syrup manufacturers, forest supervisors and policymakers prepare for changes that are already impacting a multimillion-dollar industry.

    After the weather is above freezing maple trees sap begins to flow (the sap is no longer frozen), which starts the maple syrup making season. Due to climate change (an independent variable in this problem) the season is coming sooner, this affects the flow and content in the sap (the dependent variable in this problem). This will affect many industries that thrive and make a living off of maple syrup making. The industry across the world, that has been increasing every year, will have sales, profits, and content will all go downhill because of the temperature the trees are in. When the temperature gets above freezing faster, the enzymes in the sap are activated sooner creating an early prediction of the maple sap. I believe that this situation is a severe issue for the workers in the industry of making maple syrup and shows how much change can be caused by global warming creating climate changes.

  2. Charlotte Holland says:

    New insight as to how cells maintain their identity

    URL- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190920102839.htm

    Authors- University of Copenhagen, The Faculty of Health, and Medical Sciences

    Website- Science Daily

    Posting Date- September 20, 2019

    In the body’s cells, some proteins are of extreme importance as to which are active or turned off. Now, from the University of Copenhagen and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center have discovered which proteins are necessary in order to maintain the proper regulation. The in Professor Kristian Helin’s research group have for years worked to understand the that control whether a is active or inactive. In a new study, working at the Research & Invention of new things Center and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem Cell at the University of Copenhagen as well as the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York have extremely important new results. The results may affect the future treatment of certain cancers related to the studied protein complex, including lymphoma, blood cancer and a special type of brain cancer that is often seen in children’, says Kristian Helin, Professor at BRIC and Director of Research at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Turning On and Off One of the key protein complexes that controls whether are turned on or off is called PRC2. To make sure that the complex binds to the right places in the , some other proteins are connected to PRC2. In the published article, the research group has studied the importance of six different proteins connected to PRC2, and the group has shown that all six proteins help direct PRC2 to the right places in the . In 15 different combinations, the removed the connected proteins from stem cells one by one.

    In body’s cells many proteins are very important to deciding which genes active or not in any use, but now researchers have found the proteins that are needed in order to create genetic control. In class we have discussed how proteins are put together and eventually they all make up RNA or DNA, which holds and transfers genetic information. Now that researchers have found the proteins they can adjust to control genetics they can change an unwanted protein and make it better maybe with no defects too. I think that this is a cool idea and it is interesting that now researchers found this information and now can do this.

  3. Charlotte Holland says:

    Division by subtraction: Extinction of large mammal species likely drove survivors apart

    URL- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190919142303.htm

    Author- University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    Website- Science daily

    Posting Date- September 19, 2019

    The study found that surviving mammal species often responded by distancing themselves from their neighbours, potentially reducing their interactions as predators and prey, territorial competitors or scavengers. Led by Macquarie’s Anikó Tóth, the team analyzed records of 93 species of mammals in hundreds of fossil sites over three periods: 21,000 to 11,700 years ago, when extinctions began ; 11,700 to 2,000 years ago ; and 2,000 years ago to the present. The researchers then evaluated whether and to what extent a species lived at those sites between each of the other 92. Researchers found that the proportion of aggregating pairs generally declined after the extinctions, and the strength of associations often fell even among species that continued to aggregate. Amazingly, the team also noted that remaining species began cohabiting less often as they expanded into larger expanses of their respective geographical ranges. Lyons said the specific reasons for the apparent paradox and the overall trends are unclear, although they might be explained by the ecological consequences of losing species like the mammoth. The mammoth’s loss effectively condemned the mammoth steppe, possibly compartmentalizing land expanses hosting many species.
    “If you’re an open-habitat species that used to occupy the mammoth steppe, and now the mammoth steppe has gone away, you might inhabit, say, open grassland areas that are surrounded by forests,” Lyons said. Over all, all mammoth extinctions, dire wolves and other large species of mammals in North America may have driven surviving species to distance themselves from their neighbors, reducing interactions as predators and prey, territorial competitors or scavengers.The finding made by research might predict the ecological effects of future extinctions.

    A recent research indicates that the extinction of mammals, dire wolves and other big species of mammals in North America has led surviving species to distance themselves from their neighbours, decreasing interactions as predators and prey, territorial rivals or scavengers. The scientists claim that the discovery could predict the ecological impacts of future extinctions. I do not believe that this relates to class in any way but I believe that the researches are right and that this is a big impact for the future.

  4. Charlotte Holland says:

    Alcohol-producing gut bacteria could cause liver damage even in people who don’t drink

    URL- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190919142336.htm

    Author- Cell Press

    Website- Science daily

    Posting Date- September 19, 2019

    “We were surprised that bacteria can produce so much alcohol,” said, lead author, Jing Yuan (at Capital Institute of Pediatrics).Yuan and her team found the connection between intestinal bacteria and NAFLD when a patient with serious liver damage and a rare disease called auto-brewery syndrome came across. After eating alcohol-free and high-sugar food, patients with ABS would get drunk. The disease was connected with yeast infection that can lead to alcohol in the gut and intoxication. “We initially thought it was because of the yeast, but the test result for this patient was negative,” Yuan said.After the first month, these mice began to create fatty liver. Their livers showed signs of scarring by 2 months, which means long-term harm to the liver was done. In these mice, the development of liver disease was similar to that of alcohol-fed mice. When bacteria-fed mice were given by the team with an antibiotic that murdered K. Pneumonia, they reversed their situation.”It’s likely that these particular bacteria enter people’s body via some carriers from the environment, like food,” said, co-author, Di Liu (at the Chinese Academy of Sciences). “But I don’t think the carriers are prevalent — otherwise we would expect much higher rate of NAFLD. Also, some people may have a gut environment that’s more suitable for the growth and colonization of K. pneumonia than others because of their genetics. This finding could also help diagnose and treat bacteria-related NAFLD,” Yuan said.

    Due to variables other than alcohol, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of fat in the liver, but its cause remains unknown. This relates to class because we were talking about the different types of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated). Researchers have now connected NAFLD to intestinal bacteria that generate big contents of alcohol in the body, discovering these bacteria in more than 60% of patients with NAFLD. Their results could assist create a screening technique for non-alcoholic fatty liver early diagnosis and therapy. I believe that this article is important and helps you understand more about the effects this alcohol has like NAFLD.

  5. Charlotte Holland says:

    Anthropologist contributes to major study of large animal extinction

    URL- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190920124648.htm

    Author- University of Arkansas

    Website- Science daily

    Posting Date- September 20, 2019

    Researchers from Australia, the United States, Canada, and Finland have shown in their research published today in Science that beings have formed the procedures underlying the coexistence of species over the past several thousand years. The scientists discovered that smaller, surviving animals like deer had altered their ecological interactions, causing ecological upheaval across the continent. The work of the scientists has consequences for preserving the surviving big animals of today, now threatened by another mass extinction led by human beings. Tóth and the co-authors concentrated on the distribution of big animals across the mainland in the geological epochs of the Pleistocene and the Holocene. The scientists evaluated how often pairs of animals have been discovered living in the same group or in distinct communities for this purpose. The scientists evaluated only those pairs in which both species survived to rule out community modifications resulting from decreased diversity or lost connections involving extinct species. Villaseñor’s latest study investigates how modern human beings have shaped the ecosystems of today. “Rather than thinking of humans as separate from ‘natural’ environments, our research has illuminated the major impacts that humans have had on the ecosystem for many thousands of years,” Villaseñor said. “The results of this paper and others from our group illuminate the outsized impacts that human-mediated extinction has had in North America”. Humans led to the extinction of big mammals, including mammals and sabre-toothed cats, by the end of the Late Pleistocene in North America about 11,000 years ago.

    Anthropologist led a big, multi-institutional research on how the human-influenced mass extinction of North America’s gigantic carnivores and herbivores and how it essentially changed the continent’s biodiversity and landscape. I agree with the research and information that they have found and analysed. I believe that Villaseñor’s study about modern humans is also interesting and that not very many people thing about the point she made such as “Rather than thinking of humans as separate from ‘natural’ environments, our research has illuminated the major impacts that humans have had on the ecosystem for many thousands of years.” I think that the way she said this was interesting and fascinating.

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