Current Event Summaries by Bennett V.

5 Responses to Current Event Summaries by Bennett V.

  1. Bennett Vonahnen says:

    Title: Genome-edited bull passes on hornless trait to calves
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191007113323.htm
    Author(s): None shown
    Published by: Science Daily
    Date: October 7, 2019

    Article Summary:
    For the past couple years, scientists have been studying a group of cattle offspring that had their genes edited so that they would not grow horns. They do this to make the cattle safer for humans to handle. The scientists studying the cattle reported that none of them have developed horns. The FDA found that bacterial DNA called plasmid had transferred to four of the cattles offspring. The other two offspring had a naturally occurring allele to prevent the horns from growing. All of the cattle ended up being healthy.
    Personal Reaction:
    In this article it talks about genetically modifying animals which I think can be good and bad. With the cattle I think it was a good thing because they were modifying them so that people could be safer and none of the cattle ended up having a GMO warning on them from the FDA. I think it is different in other cases because some animals and plants have a lot of bacteria in them that it ends up being bad for you. This relates to what we are talking about in class because of the cell structure and the chromosomes. In order to modify an organism you need to modify the chromosome because that is what is going to be passed on to the offspring.

  2. Bennett Vonahnen says:

    Title: Discovery of how cells sense oxygen wins the 2019 medicine Nobel
    URL:https://www.sciencenews.org/article/medicine-nobel-2019-discovery-how-cells-sense-oxygen-cancer-wins
    Author(s): Tina Hesman Saey, Aimee Cunningham, Jonathan Lambert
    Published by: Science News
    Date: October 7, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Three scientists by the names of Gregg Semenza, William Kaelin, and Fransis Crick won the Nobel prize for medicine. They won this prize with the discovery of how cells sense oxygen. The cells try to keep the oxygen levels high in your tissues and blood cells. When the level drops the cells can sense that. When this happens your cells go through hypoxia which makes a protein called EPO so that you can make more red blood cells which raise the oxygen level in your tissues. These discoveries could help cure cancer. Scientists are working on a cure that shuts of HIF or hypoxia-insucatable factor in tumors so that they can’t spread.
    Personal Reaction:
    I think that this discovery is really great because it could help find a cure for cancer. It would help a lot of people and save a lot of lives. One thing I want to know is how people figure stuff like this out. It is great because it doesn’t only have to deal with cancer. It can also help with heart attacks and kidney disease. This relates to what we are talking about in class because it deals with cells. It shows the process cells use to create oxygen when levels are oxygen levels are low.

  3. Bennett Vonahnen says:

    Title: Sugar-coated RNAs could ‘alter the face of biochemistry as we know it’—if they’re real
    URL:https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/10/sugar-coated-rnas-could-alter-face-biochemistry-we-know-it-if-they-re-real
    Author(s): Robert F. Service
    Published by: Science Now
    Date: October 2, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Many different organelles are coated with sugars and fats to help the organelles recognize each other and they also help cells communicate. Researchers believe that RNA may be coated in sugar also. They do not know what the function of the new sugar coated RNA. This is the first time anyone has seen sugars modify RNA. Scientists Carolyn Bertozzi and Ryan Flynnfound sugar groups called N linked glycans binded to the RNA. An enzyme called OST may be responsible for this binding. When the scientists blocked the OST the sugars did not show up on the RNA. The RNA may not be modified at all meaning none of the research is certain.
    Personal Reaction:
    I think that if the sugar coated RNA is real it would be important to the way we learn about cells and the RNA. This new RNA may have a different function than normal RNA so it would be important to learn about it. This is connected to what we are learning about because it is talking about the RNA. This is part of the cells structure and if the sugar coated RNA is real it would change the way we would learn about it because it may have different functions.

  4. Bennett Vonahnen says:

    Title: New defensive mechanism against bacterial wound infections
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191004105635.htm
    Author(s): None listed
    Published by: Science Daily
    Date: October 4, 2019

    Article Summary:
    A study has brought up the effects of mast cells on open wounds and bacteria control. Mast cells play a large part in allergies. They produce symptoms such as a runny nose or itching while defending the body from harmful bacteria. The cells release a product called interleukin 6 which is a protein chain that kills bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Scientists conducted a study that showed there was 20 times more bacteria on a wound without mast cells than one with them. These mast cells could help people with healing problems heal faster. Bacteria is becoming more resistant to antibiotics so these mast cells could be used as an antibiotic free cure.
    Personal Reaction:
    I think that this discovery of the mast cells and wounds could help a lot with people that have wounds. It could help them feel better and heal quicker. With bacteria becoming more resistant to medicine the natural use of mast cells could be very good for curing cut infections. This relates to what we are doing in class because they are talking about a certain type of cell. What I am wondering is if these mast cells have the same structure as the eukaryotic cells we are studying in class right now.

  5. Bennett Vonahnen says:

    Title: CRISPRed fruit flies mimic monarch butterfly, and could make you vomit
    URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191002131939.htm
    Author(s): None listed
    Published by: Science Daily
    Date: October 2, 2019

    Article Summary:
    Gene editing in fruit flies has given them so properties of monarch butterflies. After the gene editing the flies were able to digest milkweed toxins and become poisonous to predators. Using the CRISPR gene these changes are possible. This has lead the fruit flies to have a whole new diet and way of scaring predators away. Noah Whiteman and his team made three CRISPR edits on one gene to make these changes in the fruit fly possible. The toxins in the milkweed toxin there is sodium. In humans this would make the heart beat very strongly causing death by cardiac arrest. In the flies there is a mutation that prevents the toxin from binding. After seven years scientists were finally able to modify the fruit flies to have these properties.
    Personal Reaction:
    I do not really understand the point of modifying the fruit flies to have these properties like the monarch butterfly. All it does is throw off animals diets and just creates problems. I feel like some gene editing is unneeded because there was really no point in editing the flies. This relates to what we are talking about because the organelle in chief election is going on and you modify the chromosomes in the cell to get these changes. I remember in the presentation the talked about genetic mutations and how they could be bad and I think this is one of those instances.

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